Silvina ocampo cuentos completos download

 
    Contents
  1. Cuentos completos
  2. Cuentos completos I
  3. Cuentos completos by Silvina Ocampo
  4. Silvina Ocampo. Cuentos Completos 1

Identifier: paidestparpoisun.tksCompletos1. Identifier-ark: ark:// t1ng7wj0c. Ocr: ABBYY FineReader Ppi: Scanner: Internet. Cuentos completos I book. Read 3 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Hay un universo Silvina Ocampo, hecho de nostalgia y de asombro. Silvina Ocampo Aguirre (July 28, - December 14, ) was an See if your friends have read any of Silvina Ocampo's books Cuentos completos I.

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Silvina Ocampo Cuentos Completos Download

Judith Podlubne's recent article, entitled "El recuerdo del cuento elaborate: Silvina Ocampo consciously constructs her stories in opposi This content downloaded from on Tue, 25 Jun UTC Obras completas. Cuentos completos I/ Complete stories (Spanish Edition) [Silvina Ocampo] on paidestparpoisun.tk Get your Kindle here, or download a FREE Kindle Reading App. Cuentos completos [Silvina Ocampo] on paidestparpoisun.tk *FREE* shipping on have a Kindle? Get your Kindle here, or download a FREE Kindle Reading App.

Klingenberg and Patricia N. KlingenberSource: Letras Femeninas, Vol. JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range ofcontent in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new formsof scholarship. Klingenber The University of Tulsa Silvina Ocampo, storyteller, playwright and painter, has been associated for over forty years with the most prominent literary and artistic personalities of her native Argentina. A contributing editor of Sur since its conception, Silvina Ocampo has often been unduly eclipsed by Sur's other outstanding associates, most notably by her sister, Victoria Ocampo, her husband Adolfo Bioy Casares and her life-long friend Jorge Luis Borges. The author's one hundred fifty-four short stories were written over a span of four decades and represent her most influential literary accomplish ment. The stories have been published in six major collections: Viaje olvidado , Autobiografi'a de Irene , La furia y otros cuentos , Las invitadas , Los dfas de la noche , and La naranja maravillosa Early Works Silvina's flamboyant sister, Victoria, served as her first publisher. Starting in with the short story, "Siesta en el cedro," Silvina con tributed to Sur nearly every year until the early 's. All of these pieces are either poems or stories, and all but two have been collected in the book length volumes as they were compiled. Victoria was also the first of Silvina's literary critics.

And, if such elites regarded their Ibero-Catholic heritage as declasse, all the more so were the hundreds of Afro-American and Amerindian communities that were stigmatized by past or present bondage. Whatever opposed the progress of the urban, Europeanized world was to be effaced.

Consider the military campaigns against 'natives' and backlanders under General Roca in Argentina and under the Mexican dictator Porfirio Diaz in Sonora and Yucatan and the Canudos war in Brazil. Even 'judicious sociologists' like Carlos Octavio Bunge and Alcides Arguedas were agreed that 'nothing could be expected of the degraded aboriginal people'.

On the other hand, many Russians, whether Europeanizers or Slavophiles, felt after that socialism would never regenerate bourgeois 'equilibrium' in the West and that Russia's 'primitive' collectivism offered possibilities for direct transition to modern socialism. Latin American elites, in contrast, apart from intransigent conservative factions or occasional free spirits, were prepared neither to question the implications of Western technology, rationalization and imperialism nor to promote broad consensus on matters of national culture and tradition.

In his early writings, the Mexican philosopher Leopoldo Zea held that for Latin America the nineteenth century was in effect a 'lost century'. The point is that they were often adrift when it came to identifying domestic ingredients to be 9 10 Sec Jose Luis Romero, hatinoatnhica: las ciudatUs y las ideas Buenos Aires, , p.

Abbott and L. Dunham Norman, Okla. The classic example is Domingo Faustino Sarmiento Argentina, , whose reflections on the life and times of the Argentine caudillo Facundo in Civilization y barbarie seemed to pit liberal Europe as filtered through Buenos Aires against the 'barbarism' of the pampas.

The general point, however, is that well-to-do classes throughout Latin America, including their 'enlightened' and reformist spokesmen, freely applied the term 'barbarian' not, as did the Japanese, to foreigners but to groups within their own countries who were assignably 'native': Indians, mestizos, Afro-Americans, or dirt farmers of Iberian descent. The decisive rebuttal to Sarmiento came from Jose Marti Cuba, 1 8 5 3 95 who, if he did not excel Sarmiento in his gift for social portraiture, was a more adept analyst of social process and the exigencies of nationhood.

In an incisive passage in 'Nuestra America' he challenged those who mistook the struggle between 'false erudition and Nature' as one between 'civilization and barbarity'.

The natural man is good, and he respects and rewards superior intelligence as long as his humility is not turned against him. Nationalism had taken hold in Latin America but without the romanticist implication of rootedness in the people.

Until the early twentieth century, pensadores, essayists and historians seemed agreed that cultural questions were a province of diagnosis and prescription reserved for intellectuals. The idea that people at large were the bedrock of national identity was incongruous in default of sustained, pluricentric, multiideological popular movements such as had shaped political awareness " Domingo F.

Criscenti ed. Sarmiento, Author of a Nation Berkeley, Foner ed. New York, , pp.

Thinkers, theologians, ideologues and politicians might supply doctrine and tactics for these diversely composed movements, but their roots were in widespread feelings and aspiration. Save for its African population, the United States was settled by emigres from the two 'revolutions', thus internalizing them. Latin America, however, resisted them.

The mother countries barred Protestantism at the gates, along with its messages concerning modern individualism. Europe's later proletarian 'revolution', which took forms from government paternalism through a gamut of socialisms all the way to anarchism, syndicalism and terrorism, made only tentative incursions because of the limited scope of industrialization in Latin America, the lasting efficacy of elite 'conciliations', and a permanent reserve army of workers.

However much the pensadores may have kept abreast of progressive thought in Europe, the people whom they claimed to 'think for' were blocked from forming coherent movements that might have given inspiration, definition and support to the critiques made by the intelligentsia.

The identity question therefore consists not entirely of a consensual act of portraiture by sensitive observers but also of a popular voice, featuring the disinherited, that pursues outlet in the generalized discourse of society. For two reasons the identity search came later in Latin America than in Western Europe and the modernizing world, achieving full momentum only in the twentieth century.

First, it was only by the s and s that there occurred a conflation of intellectual and popular outlooks as exemplified in letters and visual arts in Mexico, modernist manifestoes in Brazil, socio-political dialogues in Peru, ethno-literary pronouncements in Haiti and diverse manifestations elsewhere.

Secondly, with regard specifically to the pensadores, we have argued that their assurances of prior European identity were in the last century too problematic, and their confidence for sustaining critical exchange with ideologies of the industrial West too insecure, to favour a coming-to-terms with world currents. They acquiesced in regnant prescriptions for 'progress' and ruefully confessed their domestic retardation.

Here again the early twentieth century was a renovative moment. For suddenly the vanguard voices of Europe, attuned to earlier prophetic cries of the Baudelaires and Nietzsches, were raised in cacophonous condemnation or even condemnatory exaltation of the rationalist, scientistic and menacingly dehumanizing premises of the Western enterprise.

One might call modernism a cognitive assault on the contradictions of modernity. In its golden age —30 modernism, particularly from its Parisian arena, finally made its impact on Latin America, but not in a merely tutorial role.

For Europe now experienced the crisis of nerve associated with technification, commodification, alienation and rampant violence as these found expression in Marxian contradictions, Spenglerian decadence, Freudian invasions of the subconscious, and of course, industrialism and the First World War.

This seeming collapse of evolutionary assumptions gave Latin Americans leverage for dismissing presumed determinisms of their past and for inventing a new 'reality' and a new future. Europe now offered pathologies and not simply models.

Disenchantment at the centre gave grounds for rehabilitation at the rim. Latin America had to produce its own Rousseaus and Herders at the same time that it was keeping up with the Picassos and Joyces.

Cuentos completos

Over the years many have claimed that Latin American high culture was derivative from metropolitan sources in the nineteenth century and suddenly responsive to indigenous or indigenista leads after Almost the reverse is true. What made the Latin American prise de conscience of the s possible was not the artists' and intellectuals' stubborn appropriation of 'native' subject matter but their bold acrobatics to retain intellectual footing amid the disintegration of Western rationales and received understandings.

With the centre now unstrung, views from the periphery earned respect. Alejo Carpentier was to discover the world as polycentric and Jorge Luis Borges to find that it has no centre at all. As the Mexican novelist Carlos Fuentes puts it, 'the Western writer can be central only in recognizing that today he is ex-centric, and the Latin American writer only in recognizing that his eccentricity is today centered in a world without cultural axes.

Carlos Fuentes, La nueva novela hiipanoamericana, 6th ed. Mexico, D. Jose Carlos Mariategui, 'jExiste un pensamiento hispano-americano? Lima, , pp. Here he found Marxist analysis of social and economic domination an eye-opener and learned to admire how modernism, especially surrealism, could shatter the solid bourgeois world into absurd fragments.

It was to a degree the modernist impulse that led him to extract Marxism itself from positivist armature giving its scientific message mythic force, translating its categories into praxis and relativizing its pretension to universal evolutionism.

In Mariategui sensed that his query about Hispanic American thought was germinating in the 'nerve centers of the continent', although he felt that the true question was whether there existed a characteristically Hispanic American thought.

He chided the Argentine socialist Alfredo Palacios, who had proclaimed the hour at hand for 'radical emancipation' from European culture. Europe had been the lodestar, wrote Palacios, but the Great War showed its culture to contain the seeds of its own decay.

Palacios, Mariategui felt, had led youthful tropical temperaments to exaggerate the prospects for Latin American thought. It was a tonic, he said, to call 'our America' the future cradle of civilization or to proclaim, as Jose Vasconcelos had in his motto for the National University of Mexico, that: 'Through my race the spirit will speak.

The West was in crisis but far from collapse; Europe was not, 'as is absurdly said, exhausted and paralytic'. Capitalist civilization was dying, not Europe. Greco-Roman civilization had long since perished, but Europe went on. Who could deny, Mariategui asked, that the society of the future was being shaped in Europe or that the finest artists and thinkers of the age were European?

He therefore acknowledged a French or German thought but not yet a Hispanic American one, which instead was a 'rhapsody' of European motifs. One might in the countries of the Rio de la Plata speak of a spirit of 'Latinity', but it awoke no recognition from autocthonous peoples of the continent. The purpose of this chapter is not to provide an inventory of trends and genres but to review and selectively illustrate various tactics, whether deliberate or unwitting, for establishing recognition of shared identity.

Cultural history in an academic vein would assign Latin American modernism to the s, the identity essay to the s and s, and history of ideas to the s and s.

Cuentos completos I

Such pigeon-holing, however, omits the tangled antecedents, both New World and European, of these expressive forms and forecloses appreciation of their persistence after the assigned decades. In the twentieth century, cultural expression in Latin America has acquired a heavier retrospective concern, and the logic of exposition requires overrunning the designated decades.

The chronological ladders of literary history matter less than the cumulative impact of self-recognition. First, then, we sketch the career of modernism in three locations during the s and s.

Cuentos completos by Silvina Ocampo

The first two of these locales are not countries - the usual reference point for literary histories — but cities. Unlike, say, romanticism or realism, which managed a broad geographic palette, modernism required the arena where mind and sensibility awoke to specifically modern features of the Western world view: velocity, simultaneity, collage, inversion, free association, catachresis, the cult of machines and rationality — but not to the exclusion of 'primitive' evocations.

The two cities chosen are Sao Paulo, the burgeoning financial and industrial capital of South America, and Buenos Aires, its earlier commercial and cultural capital. It was assigned an act of cognition. Martin S. Abellan, La idea de Amirica, origen y evolution Madrid, A note of decadence, of ominous warning was sounding in both high and popular culture.

So accepted was the cosmopolitan ethos that commonplaces of domestic history and culture assumed a mythic cast, as in the nostalgic Argentine gauchismo. Brazilians might exalt their bandeirantes, or colonial path-finders, as did modernist poet Cassiano Ricardo in a dithyrambic account of their exploits or modernist sculptor Victor Brecheret in a monumental public statue; yet the bandeirante, historically quite as venerable as the gaucho, had not faded into a mythic past but was exemplary for pioneers of a dynamic future.

He was a flesh-and-blood hero, unlike Ricardo Giiiraldes's oneiric, 'shadowy' gaucho in Don Segundo Sombra , who concludes the most renowned work of Argentine fiction of the s by fading from sight as a man, leaving the observer's meditation cut off from its source, his lifeblood flowing away. Here inquiry probes beyond 'reality' to a domain of enigma or paradox. The challenge is not cognition but decipherment.

If the Brazilian 'anti-hero' of Mario de Andrade's Macunaima finally goes off to muse alone as a star in the vast firmament, it is not because the old life has evanesced but precisely because it is all too tenacious, too real, in a land 'sem saude e com muita sauva' — with no health and lots of ants. Although in retrospect the Mexican Revolution seems not to have been a full-dress socio-political renversement, it did at least convert Mexico City into a radiant, innovative centre by what was then interpreted as a collective act of vision and volition.

The revolution itself became a 'modernist' event by working lightning reversals and expansions of sense and sensibility. Under its inspiration the painterly imagination fused Aztec deities, the latemedieval danse macabre rediscovered by Jose Guadalupe Posada , German expressionism, and Montparnasse cubism, not to mention Renaissance muralism and Spanish ecclesial baroque. The revolution, Octavio Paz has said, had no programme. It was a gigantic subterranean revolt, a revelation that restored our eyes to see Mexico.

Thus Mexicans in the modernist age such as Paz's representative list of painters and writers Rivera, Orozco, Lopez Velarde, Azuela, Guzman and Vasconcelos were less concerned with inversion, collage, or geometric reduction than with retrieval.

Goodland New York, Orozco and Siqueiros developed a home-grown expressionism, in Siqueiros's case with ideological baggage similar to Rivera's, in Orozco's with moral and personal accents. In Mexico, the modernist agenda was not the cognition of Sao Paulo or the decipherment of Buenos Aires but a task of propaganda in the original sense of a duty to spread the 'good tidings'.

Silvina Ocampo. Cuentos Completos 1

However, the interpretation of their early messages Oswald de Andrade or the cumulative influence of their unfolding work Borges took time, even decades.

Only the quasi-modernist Mexican muralists won instant fame. Years later, in , Mario de Andrade, playfully known as the pope of Brazilian modernism, poignantly recounted the fate of avant-gardism. More was needed than to break windows, joggle the eternal verities, or quench cultural curiosity: not mere political activism, not explosive manifestoes, but greater anxiety about the epoch, fiercer revolt against life as it is.

This statement, while highly personal, betokens a general Latin American transition. For reasons related to the collapse of the international economy, to authoritarian threats at home and abroad, to ominous murmurs of the dispossessed, and to ennui with hermetic or meretricious features of vanguardism, the modernist flame was wavering, to reassert its inspiration only a generation or more later.

Mario de Andrade, 'O movimento modernista', in Aspectos da literatura brasiteira, 4th ed. Sao Paulo, , pp. The former, however, moved beyond Zolaesque canons and even, paradoxically, anticipated the 'marvellous realism' of the s while the latter laid partial claim to empirical science, but a science leavened by post-positivist philosophy and modernist wit. The late s and s created fresh context for intellectual endeavour, now conducted with an eye to such external circumstances as the aftermath of the Spanish Civil War, the Second World War, and the incipient Cold War and to such domestic trends as the advent of populist politics and the developmentalist alliance between the state and new industrial groups.

The mid-i94os saw the appearance of reformist, constitutional regimes, while rapid urbanization, the growth of middle sectors with a supposed stake in a stable order, and the by now canonical imperative of development 'from within' seemed to brighten possibilities for revolutionary change. Modernist extravagance seemed whimsical and dated save for monumental products like Mexican murals or Brazilian architecture, absorbable to the purposes of mushrooming bureaucracies.

Imaginative writers tended private gardens unless they found occasions for political statement Pablo Neruda, Miguel Angel Asturias or enticed the growing audience for 'best sellers' Manuel Galvez, Erico Verfssimo, Jorge Amado or consolidated their careers around research and institutional service Jorge Basadre, Sergio Buarque de Holanda.

Various circumstances contributed to endow the identity question with a less nationalistic, more speculative dimension: the effect of the Spanish Civil War in incorporating the Hispanic world to global politics; the modernization of Spanish academe and the transatlantic migration of many of its finest scholars; the effect of the Second World War in assimilating Latin American countries to a purported democratic partnership and in subsequently prescribing their global economic role.

Just as modernism had played its part in shaping sensibilities in the s, so in the late s and s philosophy, and particularly the schools of phenomenology and existentialism, played a part — inconspicuously for a general public — in rehabilitating the intellectual image of the American continents.

What is more, the Germanic style that caught on gave cachet to Latin American philosophizing while slighting the Anglo American analytic vein in favour of a holism more consonant with Iberian precedents. The next three sections of this chapter, then, examine modernism, the novel and essay, and philosophy as moments of a.

These three moments are not strictly consecutive nor confined to specific decades, nor are they the sole intellectual beacons of their periods, nor are they walled off like 'disciplines' some writers are identified with more than one of them: Vasconcelos, Mariategui, Martinez Estrada, Mario de Andrade. The point is that activity in these areas made distinctive contributions to the identity quest broadly defined. Moreover, they have heuristic uses, for if we liken them to Whitehead's three stages of mental growth they suggest ways of understanding how minds, from many angles and suppositions, may reach tacit recognition of shared experience.

Knowledge is ad hoc and piecemeal. Emotion flares up in the transition from bare facts to awareness of unexplored relationships. The stage of 'precision' - here the novelists and essayists — subordinates breadth of relationship to exactness of formulation.

It provides grammars of language and science along with a mode of analysis that digests facts as they accumulate. Finally comes the stage of generalization - analogous to the philosophic contribution - which rekindles romanticism but now with benefit of orderly ideas and apposite technique. Whitehead's stages are familiar in common experience where, however, they forever spin in cycles and nested minicycles.

For present purposes the three stages are applied not as a grand evolutionary scheme but to treat cultural history on the 'periphery' less as an importation of models than as domestic gestation.

In what follows certain outcomes of our three 'stages' will be traced up to the s, and the envoi will briefly consider two notable developments from the late s to the s, namely, the invasion of academic social science and the literary 'boom'. The simultaneity of these occurrences rescues us from what might have seemed an evolutionary process. More 'radical' exponents preached a doctrine of revolutionary voluntarism to upset the logic of economic domination they had so persuasively set forth.

The literary imagination, on the other hand, was not so much appalled by forces of domination as it was captivated by the resistance of local societies to the dictates of'development', whether of foreign or domestic origin. Certain apparent careless mistranslations may in fact fit into the overall pattern of this deforming tendency as being dictated by a differing world view. Similarly, questions of gender and personal relationships, so complex and multi-layered in Dickinson as explored by H.

Jordan Landry and Sylvia Henneberg18 are often blurred or altered by Ocampo in a way which is characteristic of the deliberate gender ambiguity of much of her own poetry and prose. In Dickinson, there are many key words which recur in a variety of different poems, and which therefore make intertextual links between the poems. Since there is often very little context in Dickinsons poems to assist the translator as reader in initial interpretations of the poems as Lynn Shakinovsky has observed 19, these key words take on greater importance as signifiers in their own right.

Ocampo as a translator appears not to make these connections, despite her earlier quoted remark about poems [] creat[ing] universes with their dialogues, which would suggest a holistic approach within and beyond an individual poets work.

Ocampo therefore destroys an element of unity in the Dickinson uvre by translating these key words in different ways. For example, Robin; Ocampo variously translates this as pjaro poem 5 or tordo poems 23, and but never as petirrojo, and never capitalizes the word, thus removing both the inter-poem links and the possible productive ambiguity of this looking like a proper name as well as a bird.

Ocampo, however, translates it in Poem as disoluta del roco Poemas, 38 and in Poem as pervertida de roco Poemas, 49 , giving the second a different, more sexual charge, and ignoring the plural, dews. To illustrate some of the more ambiguous deforming tendencies in the Ocampo versions which destroy underlying networks of signification, I will give a few concrete examples; firstly regarding the blurring of gender in Poem 46, and secondly regarding the distortion of philosophical, religious or emotional signification from Poems 18, , , and Poem 46 EDJ, 26; Poemas, centres around the pledging of an oath by the poet, but rather than swearing on the Bible, the poet pledges by insects and flowers recalling Poem 18 discussed earlier.

However, all the flowers named by the poet also have a feminine charge, some also doubling as girls names in English, a fact which is heightened by Dickinsons use of capital letters: I bring my Rose, By Daisy called from hillside, Blossom and I. The feminine charge is reinforced in the following and penultimate line, Her oath, and mine. Ocampos version omits the capitals on rosa and margarita despite the fact that both of these could also double as girls names in Spanish , pluralizes daisy to por las margaritas de la montaa making the pledge less intense and personal, and renders Blossom and I as Florecimiento y yo, where the Spanish word is much more metaphorical than literal, reserved for expressions like el florecimiento de la cultura renacentista.

It is also a masculine word, whereas choosing flor a girls name in Spanish would have kept the feminine charge of the original. And of course, her oath becomes su promesa in Spanish, non gender- specific and meaning either his or her, only avoidable by a phrase such as de ella which Ocampo has not chosen to use. In this way, the underlying feminine and possibly lesbian charge of the poets link to nature is lost. In terms of altering the philosophical, religious or emotional charge behind certain of the poems, it is worth considering again Poem 18 EDJ, 14; Poemas, The second phrase therefore serves to cast doubt on the first, rather than binding the poet and congregation to the recently dead person in a spirit of trust.

Similarly in her translation of Poem EDJ, ; Poemas, 56 , Ocampo makes two significant changes to the sense which render her version less hopeful than Dickinsons. Firstly, where Dickinson declares that Hope is the thing with feathers, which by using the definite article gives hope a specificity and a tangible form and presence, Ocampo omits the definite article, substituting instead the vague algo, something: Esperanza es algo con plumas, which makes hope seem less substantial and less immediately graspable.

The translation of Poem gives a slant which again is more in keeping with Ocampos own poetic aesthetic, which is one of not trying to limit pain or grief, but simply to probe its intensity and find images in which to do so. Whereas Dickinsons original poem urges us to Limit how deep a bleeding go! EDJ, , Ocampos version simply measures but does not attempt to staunch the loss of blood: Mide el fluir de la sangre!

Poemas, A similar intensification of, and dwelling on, pain comes in Poem , which in Dickinson ends: To that new Marriage, Justified through Calvaries of Love EDJ, Ocampo makes the Calvaries singular, Calvary, thereby defining the whole quality of love as a painful trial, rather than a series of smaller instances of suffering: para esa boda nueva, vindicada a travs del calvario del amor Poemas, The gloomier aspect this reveals on interpersonal relationships becomes further complicated in Ocampos version of Poem Ocampo maintains the religious associations in sacramento de l Poemas, but instead of hope blaspheming, hope might violar el lugar, violar being a verb associated not only with violating a sacred place, but also and more commonly with sexual violence.

Admittedly Dickinsons transitive use of the verb blaspheme is idiosyncratic, and blasfemar is usually intransitive in Spanish, but could not a case be made for carrying over the idiosyncratic verbal trope into Spanish, rather than bringing in the negative sexual connotations of violate, which makes the religious aspect of the dynamics of desire spelt out by Dickinson less prominent?

Where Dickinsons poem uses religious language to idolize the absent desired one, the jarring note of the verb violar in Ocampos version suggests that the persons arrival would not be upsetting the sacred space of Loneliness but rather intruding unwantedly upon the speaker herself.

The final stanza changes from a religious network of signification to a geographical one, referring to the desired meeting with the loved one as Land in Sight and My Blue Peninsula. It might be easier To fail with Land in sight Than gain My Blue Peninsula To Perish of Delight Ocampo, again, maintains the semantic field, but rather than simply gaining, or reaching, this Peninsula, Ocampo reads the verb gain in the sense of acquiring territory.

She therefore brings a colonial feel to the translation with the verb conquistar: conquistar mi azul pennsula Poemas, as if she were engaged in a struggle for territory with the loved one. This again seems to show Ocampo bringing subconsciously or otherwise the kind of relational dynamics which recur in her own poetry to her translation of Dickinson, twisting or distorting Dickinsons network of religious, sentimental and natural vocabulary and its carefully loaded capitals and presenting the Spanish reader with a soul which has neither the rhythm, intonation nor modest complexity of the original, but is rougher and less trusting.

Returning then to Borges careful wording in describing Ocampos translatorly practice as analagous to los fieles: his reference to her word-for-word adherence to Dickinsons syntax should perhaps, then, be read as somewhat skeptical skeptical not only about the very concept of a versin literal but also about the merits of being literal on the level of individual words, and thereby sacrificing some of the effects of the original.

We can see Borges skepticism towards faithfulness in general if we look at another such prologue that Borges wrote for Ocampo in a book published only one year earlier than these Dickinson translations, namely Breve santoral, a collaborative work of poetry and visual art on twelve Saints, produced by Ocampo and Norah Borges, Jorge Luis sister.

In his prologue, he relativizes the Saints, making them as real or fantastic as Roman Gods, and says that rather than having faith, the artist need only accept them in his or her imagination and play with them. With his excellent command of English, he would no doubt see that these literal versions in the syntactical sense alone were sometimes taking Ocampo off in quite different directions from the original as regards the other necessary elements of poetry such as rhythm and sounds, and overall effect.

Perhaps the way to interpret Borges provocative prologue is therefore to read it as hinting that the transmigration of Dickinsons soul into Ocampo has been accomplished, but that in a new body, the soul acquires different characteristics.

This transmigration is inevitably accompanied by a transmutation, a shift of emphasis and effect in the nature of faith and of other key networks of signification within the poetry. The adjective venturosa may have to be interpreted as describing a serendipitously felicitous and occasionally infelicitous - but not unchanged - expression of Dickinsons soul.

Thanks to Marta Dahlgren for information on recent translations. Subsequent editions published in and Henceforth Poemas. Lawrence Venuti London: Routledge, , pp. Firstly, where Dickinson declares that Hope is the thing with feathers, which by using the definite article gives hope a specificity and a tangible form and presence, Ocampo omits the definite article, substituting instead the vague algo, something: Esperanza es algo con plumas, which makes hope seem less substantial and less immediately graspable.

The translation of Poem gives a slant which again is more in keeping with Ocampos own poetic aesthetic, which is one of not trying to limit pain or grief, but simply to probe its intensity and find images in which to do so. Whereas Dickinsons original poem urges us to Limit how deep a bleeding go! EDJ, , Ocampos version simply measures but does not attempt to staunch the loss of blood: Mide el fluir de la sangre! Poemas, A similar intensification of, and dwelling on, pain comes in Poem , which in Dickinson ends: To that new Marriage, Justified through Calvaries of Love EDJ, Ocampo makes the Calvaries singular, Calvary, thereby defining the whole quality of love as a painful trial, rather than a series of smaller instances of suffering: para esa boda nueva, vindicada a travs del calvario del amor Poemas, The gloomier aspect this reveals on interpersonal relationships becomes further complicated in Ocampos version of Poem Ocampo maintains the religious associations in sacramento de l Poemas, but instead of hope blaspheming, hope might violar el lugar, violar being a verb associated not only with violating a sacred place, but also and more commonly with sexual violence.

Admittedly Dickinsons transitive use of the verb blaspheme is idiosyncratic, and blasfemar is usually intransitive in Spanish, but could not a case be made for carrying over the idiosyncratic verbal trope into Spanish, rather than bringing in the negative sexual connotations of violate, which makes the religious aspect of the dynamics of desire spelt out by Dickinson less prominent? Where Dickinsons poem uses religious language to idolize the absent desired one, the jarring note of the verb violar in Ocampos version suggests that the persons arrival would not be upsetting the sacred space of Loneliness but rather intruding unwantedly upon the speaker herself.

The final stanza changes from a religious network of signification to a geographical one, referring to the desired meeting with the loved one as Land in Sight and My Blue Peninsula.

It might be easier To fail with Land in sight Than gain My Blue Peninsula To Perish of Delight Ocampo, again, maintains the semantic field, but rather than simply gaining, or reaching, this Peninsula, Ocampo reads the verb gain in the sense of acquiring territory. She therefore brings a colonial feel to the translation with the verb conquistar: conquistar mi azul pennsula Poemas, as if she were engaged in a struggle for territory with the loved one.

This again seems to show Ocampo bringing subconsciously or otherwise the kind of relational dynamics which recur in her own poetry to her translation of Dickinson, twisting or distorting Dickinsons network of religious, sentimental and natural vocabulary and its carefully loaded capitals and presenting the Spanish reader with a soul which has neither the rhythm, intonation nor modest complexity of the original, but is rougher and less trusting.

Returning then to Borges careful wording in describing Ocampos translatorly practice as analagous to los fieles: his reference to her word-for-word adherence to Dickinsons syntax should perhaps, then, be read as somewhat skeptical skeptical not only about the very concept of a versin literal but also about the merits of being literal on the level of individual words, and thereby sacrificing some of the effects of the original.

We can see Borges skepticism towards faithfulness in general if we look at another such prologue that Borges wrote for Ocampo in a book published only one year earlier than these Dickinson translations, namely Breve santoral, a collaborative work of poetry and visual art on twelve Saints, produced by Ocampo and Norah Borges, Jorge Luis sister.

In his prologue, he relativizes the Saints, making them as real or fantastic as Roman Gods, and says that rather than having faith, the artist need only accept them in his or her imagination and play with them. With his excellent command of English, he would no doubt see that these literal versions in the syntactical sense alone were sometimes taking Ocampo off in quite different directions from the original as regards the other necessary elements of poetry such as rhythm and sounds, and overall effect.

Perhaps the way to interpret Borges provocative prologue is therefore to read it as hinting that the transmigration of Dickinsons soul into Ocampo has been accomplished, but that in a new body, the soul acquires different characteristics.

This transmigration is inevitably accompanied by a transmutation, a shift of emphasis and effect in the nature of faith and of other key networks of signification within the poetry.

The adjective venturosa may have to be interpreted as describing a serendipitously felicitous and occasionally infelicitous - but not unchanged - expression of Dickinsons soul. Thanks to Marta Dahlgren for information on recent translations.

Subsequent editions published in and Henceforth Poemas. Lawrence Venuti London: Routledge, , pp. Translation by Andrew Chesterman. Consulted February Johnson Boston: Little, Brown and Co. All subsequent references to Dickinsons poems in English will be taken from this edition, henceforth EDJ. Silvina Ocampo, Poesa completa in 2 vols. Buenos Aires: Emec, vol. He continues in voyeuristic tone: Lentamente, esa historia apasionante [] abre las puertas de su recinto secreto.

Record algunas frases relacionadas con el dogma de la filosofa india: El alma est en el cuerpo como el pjaro en la jaula.

El cuerpo hace largos viajes y cuando [] perece lo abandona, como al casco de un barco, para buscar otro y gobernarlo como al anterior. In Cuentos completos I, p. Bradford highlights Dickinsons uso idiosincrtico y, por ende, de especial carga semntica de rayas y maysculas p.

Bradford disagrees openly with Borges statement about Dickinsons cadence awaiting the reader in Ocampos versions; she states that las incongruencias y la irregularidad rtmica borran lo pudoroso de la complejidad, y tambin alteran la cadencia sencilla caracterstica de Dickinson p. In her opinion, in order to render faithfully the poetry of Emily Dickinson into another language, El discurso semitico de la poeta [] debe traducirse con todos sus componentes maysculas, rayas, y ritmos para transplantar el valor prerreferencial [Bradford uses this in a Kristevan sense] que contiene en el nuevo idioma op.

Shakinovsky states that Dickinsons poetry is characterized by the absence of the provision of a frame of reference inside which to read the poem. Juega parejamente con los doce trabajos de Hrcules y con los exorcismos que obr Jess. Open Me Carefully. The Emily Dickinson Journal 8. The Translation Studies Reader.

London: Routledge. Complete Poems of Emily Dickinson, ed.

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